We are living through one of the greatest revolutions in human history. Microprocessors have given us the internet, mobile phones and more recently, artificial intelligence (AI).
AI has the potential to dramatically influence and disrupt the workplace in the coming years. Self-driving cars are the obvious next disruptive technology, but AI will also impact law, banking, medicine and other industries.
With the advent of AI, creative thinking becomes ever more critical.
The stream of breakthrough ideas that will make the world a better place relies on us developing novel strategies, techniques and experiences that leverage new technologies. As Bob Moritz, chairman of professional services firm PwC, said recently at the World Economic Forum’s annual summit in Davos, Switzerland, “We’re still looking for creativity, because that can’t be coded. Robotics and computers and coding actually gives you a very straight and narrow path to go down a fine course. The world we’re living in today is a lot more zig zag, and people are going to be important to that equation….”
Creativity does not happen by accident. Advances in physiological research can provide us with insights about how we can spark our own agile thinking and problem solving.
A good place to start is to sleep more, not less. When we are under pressure, it can be tempting to claw back some hours in the day. If you need to solve a problem or come up with a new creative approach, reducing your sleep hours is the opposite of what your brain needs. Have you ever woken up in the middle of the night and had a “Eureka!” moment — a deep insight? I certainly have; it’s one reason I keep a notebook by my bed. I need to ensure that I capture the insights generated during sleep.
Creative problem solving appears to happen during the REM phase of sleep, which typically occurs more in the second half of your sleep, if you’re getting the recommended 7.5 hours. In a 2009 study at the University of California, San Diego, researchers found that REM sleep “directly enhances creative processing more than any other sleep or wake state.” So, if you need to build more creativity into your life, give yourself permission to sleep a bit more.
You can also sprinkle physical activity into your day to improve your creativity and learning. Scientists at the University of California, Irvine found thatexercise can increase levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and other growth factors, stimulate neurogenesis, and improve learning and mental performance. As little as 15 minutes of exerciseimproves mental performance, so why not add this to your day, before important tasks? Go for a short walk before a presentation. Have a walking meeting if you need to problem solve. Or, if you can start your day with a workout, you’ll prime your brain for excellence and begin the process of remodeling the areas of your brain that will help you think more clearly.
If you’re wondering what kind of exercise is best for creativity, research suggests that aerobic activities like walking, swimming, cycling and running are best. Exercising in nature appears to be specifically helpful for problem solving. That can be as simple as a brisk walk in a local park.
One last idea to consider is adding deliberate mindfulness practice and meditation to your daily routine, especially on days when you need to spark your creativity. Practising mindfulness and meditation has been shown to improve attentional control, problem solving, concentration and creativity. New imaging techniques — including functional magnetic resonance imaging, which shows brain activation, and diffusion tensor imaging, which shows the neural networks in the brain — demonstrate that mindfulness and meditation can improve brain function.
Think of meditation as strength training for the brain. Just as you would lift weights to build and strengthen your muscles, you can use meditation to build and strengthen your brain and then, in addition, control and sharpen your mind. Try apps like headspace.com or calm.com to get started.
As a leader in business, you’re probably pushing the limits on a daily basis. Adopting deliberate practices that improve your creativity and mental agility will allow you to perform at a higher level more easily and more consistently. Putting these ideas into practice does require a shift in mindset and a reallocation of your priorities. It will be challenging in the short term, but the long-term benefits will be powerful for you personally and for your career and business.
Physiologist and exercise medicine researcher at Toronto’s Hospital for Sick Children, assistant professor at the University of Toronto, author of Superbodies and The Ripple Effect.
The skill of communication in the era of social media, leading without a title and brand awareness has never been more important. Steve Jobs knew how important a speech can be. He practised for days before presentations. More recently, Elon Musk has delivered presentations for Tesla, SpaceX and SolarCity initiatives. These talks have led to the exponential growth of his companies and, possibly, a different future for humanity.
Despite the importance of communication (or maybe because of it), public speaking remains one of our greatest fears. Jerry Seinfeld said once that an average person at a funeral prefers to be in the casket than give the eulogy.
I don’t think it has to be that way. If you apply the science of human performance, you can improve your ability to deliver powerful messages, and improve your mental and physical health at the same time. Here are a few tips to get you started.
If you, like many others, are struggling with your energy levels, here are twelve things you need to know to better understand and improve your energy levels.
1. Sleep restores energy.
While you’re asleep, a lot is going on in your body to recover, restore, and rebuild it. Sleep is a highly active metabolic process that helps optimize our brain structure, repair damaged cells in the body, and restore energy levels.
2. Increase body temperature to increase energy.
If you want to increase your alertness and concentration at a time of the day when you normally feel sluggish, increase your body temperature by doing five to ten minutes of light cardiorespiratory exercise, such as a brisk walk.
3. Take it outside for a few.
Walking in nature improves measures of revitalization, self-esteem, energy, and pleasure, and it decreases frustration, worry, confusion, depression, tension, and tiredness far more than light activity indoors does. So take your walk outside.
4. Add some exercise.
When you exercise at an intensity that is high enough to cause your body some physiological stress, the body will adapt and improve. You will get stronger, faster, and fitter. You’ll also get smarter and happier. You will have more energy.
High fiber foods take longer to digest, provoke less of an insulin response, and leave us feeling satiated with nice, even energy levels. Go for complex, slow-digesting carbohydrates packed full of nutrients and fiber to ensure a consistent supply of mental energy.
6. Stay hydrated.
No water, no energy. You know that sluggish feeling you get in the afternoon? For most people, the afternoon crash is caused by dehydration. So do yourself a favor. Give yourself more energy by drinking some water. Tired? Drink some water.
7. Eat protein at every meal.
It’s a good idea to eat protein at every meal. High-protein foods can help you maintain your attention and focus.
Yoga and tai chi decrease stress and anxiety, increase energy, and boost the immune system. They also give you more stamina—needed in stressful times—and improve the quality of your sleep.
9. Trying single-tasking.
The concept behind single-tasking is that you start with the most important task—not the most urgent one—and work on it exclusively until it is either complete or you are out of time. By managing how you spend your mental energy, you help ensure that you excel at whatever you do.
10. Low energy levels are usually between 1 and 4 p.m.
This three-hour span is the time of day most people have their afternoon crash, and their energy levels are the lowest.
11. Keep a log to learn more.
When are you at your best mentally? When do you feel most energetic or lethargic? To figure this out, keep a daily log, and note your energy levels each hour throughout the day.
12. Design your day around your energy levels.
Once you know when you have the least and most amounts of energy, you can craft your ideal day. Align your tasks and schedule to take advantage of your high mental and physical energy times. You’ll perform better, and you’ll also be much healthier.
It’s really hard to live a high-performance life when high stress is a daily reality. Chronic stress damages your body, threatens your mental health, puts strain on relationships, and takes the joy out of life.
Your thoughts have strong influence over stress levels. What you choose to think about, or not think about, dictates how your body and mind react to everyday life.
So how can we reduce the ongoing flow of damaging stress—and even find peace in our thought life? The key is to break up stressful times with periods of rest, recovery, and regeneration. The good news is that anyone can learn techniques that can counter the damage of the stress response.
Make sure that each day you take some time to break the stress cycle and rest, recover, and regenerate. Doing this not only helps you find peace in the moment but also recharges your body and brain to stay healthy over the long term.
Here are 7 proven techniques that can help you have a healthy thought life and recover from chronic stress:
1. Move your body
Rhythmic, repeated motion is particularly soothing to the mind and body. A long walk, cycling, swimming, or running will all work, but any kind of movement will relieve tension, improve circulation, and clear your mind.
2. Get into nature
Go outside! Head to the garden, the park, or the woods to lower your blood pressure, strengthen your immune system, reduce tension and depression, and boost your mood. It’s stunning how good it is for your health to be in nature. Leave the cell phone and earbuds at home.
3. Practice yoga or Tai Chi
Like nature therapy, yoga and Tai Chi decrease stress and anxiety, increase energy, and boost the immune system. They also give you more stamina—needed in stressful times—and improve the quality of your sleep.
4. Have perspective
Don’t be so quick to conclude that you “can’t handle” a stressful situation. This is truly a mind-over-matter opportunity. Believing that you are strong and resourceful actually makes you stronger and more resourceful. Don’t give in to negative self-talk about not having what it takes to manage life.
5. Change the nature of your response
Research indicates that taking an active, problem-solving approach to life’s challenges relieves stress and can transform it into something positive. If you withdraw, deny the problem, or spend all your time venting, you’ll feel helpless. Instead, be determined to make a change, put effort into it, and plan for better results.
6. Practice slow, deep breathing
Start applying the power of deep breathing each day. It will make a huge difference. Start small by taking three deep breaths each time you sit down at your desk—in the morning, after breaks, after lunch, and so on. It will help you become more patient, calm, and relaxed.
7. Block time for single-tasking.
Each day this week, schedule time in your calendar for focusing exclusively on one task. This task should be something that is very important to you. Doing several things at once might make it seem as if you are working hard, but it’s an illusion. Your body and mind are not designed to work that way and it causes extra stress.
Decreased alertness is a huge hindrance to thinking and, ultimately, performing at a high level. There are many factors that can help you feel more (or less) alert. These six ways to feel more alert are changes you can easily make to your life, starting today!
According to the National Cancer Institute, approximately 39.6% of men and women will be diagnosed with cancer at some point during their lifetimes. The reality of cancer is upsetting, but there is hope. You can cut your cancer risk in half by committing to four important areas. No magic pills, insane amount of money, or all-consuming regimen. And, the best news is, you will not only lower your risk of cancer, but also improve your overall health and change your life for the positive.
Toronto physiologist Greg Wells’s new book, The Ripple Effect, makes lofty promises, pledging that we can Sleep Better, Eat Better, Move Better, Think Better. A superachiever himself (Ironman, PhD, researcher at Toronto’s Hospital for Sick Kids and professor at the University of Toronto), Wells nevertheless tempers those assertions by sticking to a simple message in the book, in stores April 4. It’s okay to dream big, but start small. Peppered with “1 per cent tips,” Wells advocates staying focused on micro-improvements (using spices, not sauces, to cut calories; walking 15 minutes a day to potentially lower risk of breast and colon cancer 24 to 40 per cent). “Microchanges are sustainable forever,” he says. “When they add up over time, it’s like compound interest for your body and mind.”
You know those days when you don’t get enough sleep, so you decide to skip the gym and then you end up eating nothing but garbage for the rest of the day? We’ve all been there. Greg Wells, author of The Ripple Effect, says there are ways we can make small changes to our sleeping, eating, exercising and thinking habits that can transform our health for life.
The other day, a friend of mine who used to work crazy hours told me about his desire to become a true Sleep Master. He had at long last accepted the science of sleep, which I talked about a few months ago in this blog. Exhausted all the time, his health and relationships were suffering and he was making a change.
He now knows that sleep reduces the risk factors associated with heart attacks, strokes and cancer, strengthens the immune system, boosts problem-solving and creativity, reduces stress, builds muscle, regulates appetite, and helps us to manage mental and emotional health challenges.
My friend’s understanding of the facts is awesome. And his sleep-wake balance is a lot better. But we then talked about another challenge he faces every night: not getting into bed at the right time to clock 7 to 8 hours of sleep, but falling asleep and staying asleep throughout the night.
Sleeping soundly gets harder as we age. You may have noticed that you take longer to drift off or wake up more frequently than when you were younger. With age comes wisdom: we have learned from our mistakes. But with age also comes disrupted sleep, which is the last thing we need to stay healthy, succeed at work and be the best for our families.
So what can you do? Below are three science-based methods to become a true Sleep Master and improve your performance at work, at home and with your loved ones.
Sleep Master Method 1: Defend Your Last Hour
Set up a routine that starts an hour before bed that allows you to decompress and relax. Many of my clients who have trouble staying asleep are the ones who work or manage the household right up until they collapse into bed. You can avoid this by finding a calming activity you love and doing it before bed.
Ideally, stay away from screens like your TV, computer or smart phone. Melatonin (a hormone that helps regulate sleep) is produced by your pineal gland, which is located deep inside your brain and is very sensitive to light. The brightness of screens stimulates your brain and prevents the pineal gland from releasing the melatonin you need to be drowsy. Read a novel, take a bath, listen to relaxing music. Choose low-stress, non-pulsing light activities. You will enjoy that hour immensely and benefit from a regular daily rhythm.
Sleep Master Method 2: Keep Your Sleep Cave Dark
Staying asleep requires a dark room. Really dark. As in, no hall light outside your door, no light in the ensuite bathroom, and no alarm clock beaming from the table beside you. As indicated above, light in our environment signals the brain to wake up. As the sun rises, our melatonin levels drop and we pop out of sleep.
If your sleep cave is not dark enough, your brain is signalled to wake up. If you get up to use the bathroom in the night, turning on any lights will disrupt your rest. Other small changes in your bedroom can make a big difference: get blackout blinds, switch off lights around you, and cover your alarm clock. If you would like to use a nightlight, find one that emits red light in the night and blue light in the morning. Red light stimulates melatonin production (think sunset) and blue light turns it off and wakes you up (natural daylight contains blue light).
Sleep Master Method 3: Be Cool
In the evening, increased melatonin levels in the body cause the blood vessels in the skin to dilate, releasing body heat into the environment. This cooling promotes drowsiness and helps us fall asleep. Basically, a cool environment tells your brain and body it’s time to knock off. So keep your bedroom cool — at about 19 degrees Celsius or 66 degrees Fahrenheit. Being cool should help you stay asleep during the night.
Embracing the science of sleep is one thing. That’s when you accept that sleep is needed to maintain mental, emotional and physical health. Embracing the science of the sleep environment is another. But with the knowledge of both, you’re well on your way to becoming a Sleep Master and living a high-performance life.
A good night’s sleep is the foundation of physical health and mental energy.
I’m a science geek. I like to know why a particular approach to life or technique for success works. Otherwise, I tend to glaze over when faced with another “X Ways to Achieve Y Results” article. In the absence of research or evidence, I’m less likely to pay attention and less motivated to make a change in my life.
Maybe that’s just me. But I’ll assume you’re also a “but how do we know that really matters?” person and lay it out for you — on the subject of sleep.
Sleep is free, available to all, beyond good for us and largely ignored as the foundation of physical health and mental energy. It’s the first thing that gets cut when life is busy and the last thing we add back in when a chunk of time comes our way. But if we were smart, it would be our main priority, and the rest of our lives would be built around it.
As an entrepreneur, you likely travel a lot, and you already know that jet lag (which science geeks call “flight dysrhythmia”) can cause all kinds of unpleasant symptoms: insomnia, loss of appetite, depressed mood, upset stomach, fatigue and mental fuzziness, to name a few.
And the farther you travel, the worse your jet lag will likely be. Why? Because crossing time zones throws your internal rhythms out of sync with your external environment. It’s like your body stays back in New York as you head off to your first meeting in London!
On the topic of sleep, I can generally divide people into two categories: those who fervently wish they could have more, and those who brag about how little they need.
While these are radically different attitudes, both groups share one fundamental reality: inadequate sleep to build and maintain optimal health.
We already know that poor sleep is linked to motor vehicle accidents, industrial disasters and medical errors, as well as weak concentration, problem-solving, memory and stress management. We also don’t exercise well or recover properly from workouts. And we are not more productive at work, despite believing that all those extra hours at the office boost our performance.
The Problem With Not Getting Enough Sleep
The science of insufficient sleep is pretty scary. According to the National Sleep Foundation, we sleep 20% less than we used to a century ago. Seventy million Americans have a diagnosed sleep disorder – and that’s just the people who actually went to the doctor to get diagnosed.
Why should we care? Lack of sleep is not going to kill us, right?
Wrong. It turns out that insufficient sleep – less than 6 hours per night – can cut our lives short. If you don’t sleep well:
You are likely to gain weight. Adequate sleep regulates the appetite hormones Leptin and Ghrelin. You eat more when you’re tired (and tend to crave sugary and fatty foods) not only because good decision-making is impaired, but because your hormones are disregulated.
Your brain can’t repair and regenerate. During sleep, the size of neurons is reduced by up to 60%. Why? Because extra space between your brain cells allows your glymphatic system to clean out the metabolic waste that accumulates. That’s right – you literally wash your brain of waste products and damage when you sleep well.
In short, good sleep is the foundation for living a healthy, high-performance life. Here are a few proven techniques that you can use to sleep soundly.
3 Proven Ways to Sleep Soundly
1. No screens before bed
Get rid of your screens, including your TV if you have one in the bedroom. This can be a huge lifestyle change, but having a light that flashes at you at 240 frames per second is a surefire way to keep you awake. It’s not good that 61% of people fall asleep with the TV on.
Avoiding light from screens allows your pineal gland to release the right amount of melatonin (a hormone that regulates sleep) at the right time. Television, iPads, laptops and mobile phones all compromise your ability to fall asleep and then sleep deeply. So you might need to cut out the late night talk shows or YouTube clips and pick up a good book instead.
2. Your bedroom needs to be really, really dark
Unfortunately, melatonin production drops as we age. This means that we need to stay away from light during the night, too. You should have thick blinds or curtains in your bedroom, keep all lights off (including in the bathroom), and even cover your alarm clock. If you would like to use a nightlight, find one that emits red light in the night and blue light in the morning. Red light stimulates melatonin production (think sunset) and blue light turns it off and wakes you up (natural daylight contains blue light).
3. Your bedroom should be cool
In the evening, increased melatonin levels cause the blood vessels in the skin to dilate, releasing body heat into the environment and cooling the body. This cooling promotes drowsiness and helps us fall asleep. At night, a temperature of 19 degrees C / 66 degrees F in your room should be cool enough to help you stay asleep.
If we are well rested, we are less stressed, stronger and more effective in our exercise, sharper in our work and just plain more fun to be around. The catch is that the North American attitude toward sleep tends to be that it isn’t particularly important. As a result, we’re getting sick and not performing to our potential.
As you plan for a world-class life, the more you can commit to getting a great sleep, the healthier and better you’ll be.
A couple of years ago I had the bad luck to catch a virus that my two year old daughter picked up at her daycare. Thankfully she only got a mild cold. I got viral myocarditis – basically the virus went into my heart and caused loads of very painful inflammation.
Until that point I was doing reasonably well with sticking to an exercise routine. But after the illness I could barely walk up a flight of stairs. And if I did make it up the stairs I’d have to rest for a few minutes to recover. Suddenly I was in the worst shape of my life.
So as an exercise physiologist I decided to use myself as a test subject and experiment. I went back to my research and explored what was needed to get back into good physical condition as fast as I could, and to lose as much body fat as possible. I wanted to get fit and get lean.
The few weeks I was laid up in bed recovering from the virus I checked out as many research papers as I could. What I discovered was not what I expected. Apparently, the first thing I needed to do was sleep more. Believe it or not to build the foundation for a better, healthier life we need to be better rested.
I hear what you’re thinking. It’s easy to talk about getting more rest while you’re lying in a hospital bed for weeks. In the real world there just isn’t enough time to get everything done and sleep well. Work, family and exercise is sometimes more than many people can handle at once. But the research clearly shows that if we take a bit more time to sleep, so many things that people want to achieve in life become possible. Let’s take losing body fat as an example.
We are in the midst of a worldwide obesity epidemic. We are also sleeping less than we ever have in history. Amazingly, those two problems are connected. Sleep helps regulate the amount of leptin and ghrelin in your body. Those are hormones that help to control and manage your appetite and satiety. So if you sleep better, you’re better able to avoid cravings for sugar and high fat foods.
What if you want to exercise more? Have you ever tried having a great workout when you’re tired? It’s really tough. Once again it comes down to hormones. When you sleep, your body releases Human Growth Hormone, which promotes fat breakdown and increases in muscle mass. That’s right, sleep means more muscle and less fat!
Somehow it has become almost a badge of honour to sleep less or to try to get by on as little sleep as possible. But sleeping less causes so many problems I don’t think that the payoff is worth it.
According to the Centre for Disease Control in the United States sleep is critical to health. Insufficient sleep is linked to motor vehicle accidents, industrial disasters and medical errors. Not to mention that after a sleepless night we all have problems concentrating, remembering things and we can get more irritable. We can become more stressed more easily. And that’s the last thing we need in this crazy world where volatility is the new normal.
So how much sleep do we need? We’re all different. I need eight hours. You might need 10. The generally accepted research suggests that children need at least 10 hours, teenagers need about 9-10 hours, and adults need 7-8 hours. There is a small percentage of the population that has a gene that allows them to sleep for 3-4 hours a night and to be rested. I wish I had that gene, but sadly I don’t.
When I was trying to recover from my heart infection, my wife and I made sleeping a priority and got between 8-10 hours a night for about three months. We got healthier, and my fitness improved dramatically. And I was much better at work, even though I took more time out of the day to sleep.
So what can you do to make sure you sleep better? It’s really important to create an environment in your bedroom that helps you to sleep well. Stay away from electronic screens for 45 minutes before you sleep and keep your room as dark as possible. Melatonin (a hormone that helps regulate sleep) is produced by your pineal gland, which is located deep inside your brain and is very sensitive to light. Because the pineal gland responds to light via neurons that project from your eyes, you have to ensure that you are in a dark space while you sleep so that the pineal gland can release the right amount of melatonin at the right time to help you sleep better.
So you might need to cut out the late night talk shows or YouTube clips, and pick up a good book instead.
Health Advisor contributors share their knowledge in fields ranging from fitness to psychology, pediatrics to aging.
Recovery is an aspect of training that is getting significant attention right now because research is revealing the various techniques you can use between workouts that will have an important effect on your response to training. By understanding and applying the science of recovery and regeneration, you can plan effectively to ensure that you give your body the help it needs to repair, heal, and grow. This is the key to becoming “the 24 hour athlete.”
There is a reciprocal relationship between sleep and exercise. If you sleep properly, you will probably perform well during your next workout or race, and if you exercise regularly, you will be able to sleep well. By understanding and applying the science of sleep, you will know how to optimize your health, fitness and performance.
Greg Wells is the author of Superbodies, a scientist, physiologist and health professor at the University of Toronto. The 41-year-old has biked across Africa, ran marathons in the arctic and spent 16 years advising Olympic athletes and coaches.
Arguably one of Canada’s most qualified health experts, Wells acted as the sports science analyst on CTV during the 2010 and 2012 Olympic Games. On the day when the kinesiology professor thought he might die, however, Wells was unable to make sense of his own body.